- About CDIAC
New CDIAC Data Products, Publications, and Activities
- CDIAC has updated its presentation of temperature data from the Climatic Research Unit of the University of East Anglia (UK), which finds that 2015 was by far the warmest year in the modern temperature record.
- CDIAC has updated the Global and National Fossil Fuel CO2 emissions through 2013.
- The GLODAPv2 WAVES system is now available at CDIAC: http://cdiac3.ornl.gov/waves/globalprv2.
LDEO Database V2015: Takahashi, T., S.C. Sutherland and A. Kozyr. 2016. Global Ocean Surface Water Partial Pressure of CO2 Database: Measurements Performed During 1957-2015 (Version 2015). ORNL/CDIAC-160, NDP-088(V2015). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, doi: 10.3334/CDIAC/OTG.NDP088(V2015).
Approximately 10.5 million measurements of surface water pCO2 made over the global oceans during 1957-2015 have been processed to make a uniform data file in this Version 2015. Measurements made in open oceans as well as in coastal waters are included. The data assembled include only those measured using equilibrator-CO2 analyzer systems, and have been quality-controlled based upon the stability of the system performance, the reliability of calibrations for CO2 analysis and the internal consistency of data. We have added about 1.4 million data points comprised of 461 leg/cruise segments in this version. A total of 200,000 of these were collected on the 5 ships in our current field program. The remainders were added from various web sites for Volunteer Observation Ships (VOS) operated by various agencies. Our ships operate primarily in high latitudes in both hemispheres and have built decades long records in these areas. R/V Nathaniel B. Palmer’s system has been operating since 1995, and R/V Laurence M. Gould’s system since 2001. Combined with the other three ships including USCGC Healy, R/V Sikuliaq and R/V M. Langseth, our contribution to this database through many years exceeds 2.3 million records primarily for the polar and sub-polar seas. These data have been corrected for the time-lag between the ship’s intake port and the pCO2 system as described in the technical report by Takahashi and Sutherland (2015).
In order to allow re-examination of the data in the future, a number of measured parameters relevant to pCO2 in seawater are listed. The overall uncertainty for the pCO2 values listed is estimated to be ± 2.5 μatm on the average. The names and institutional affiliations of the contributors are listed in Table 1. The documentations for the previous versions (V1.0, V2007, V2008, V2009, V2010, 2011, V2012, V2013, and V2014) of our database are available at CDIAC http://cdiac.ess-dive.lbl.gov/ftp/oceans/LDEO_Database.
- CDIAC has updated its presentation of data from the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies Surface Temperature Analysis (GISTEMP), which finds that 2015 was by far the warmest year in the modern temperature record.
- CDIAC has published the NDP-096(2016):
An Internally Consistent Dataset of δ13C-DIC Data in the North Atlantic Ocean
by M. Becker,1,2, N. Andersen3, H. Erlenkeuser3, T. Tanhua1, M.P. Humphreys4, A. Körtzinger1,2
Prepared by Alex Kozyr5
1 GEOMAR, Helmholtz Center for Ocean Research, Kiel, Germany
2 Christian Albrecht University Kiel, Kiel, Germany
3 Leibniz-Laboratory for Radiometric Dating and Isotope Research, Christian Albrecht University, Kiel, Germany
4 Ocean and Earth Science, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK
5 Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA
The δ13C-DIC dataset for the North Atlantic, which has undergone strict quality control. The data, all in all 6068 samples, originate from oceanographic research cruises that took place between 1981 and 2012. During a primary quality control step based on simple range tests obviously bad data has been flagged. In a second quality control step biases between nearby locations of all cruises were quantified through an elaborate crossover analysis; absolute values of biased cruises were adjusted in the data product. The dataset consists of 29 cruises of which 22 could be compared quantitatively for systematic biases through an adequate crossover study. Adjustments were applied to 10 of the 22 cruises. Based on this analysis the internal consistency of this dataset is estimated to be 0.017‰.
The NAC13v1.csv file contains the 13C data, a simple quality flag ('δ13Cf', 2: good, 9: bad/not measured) and a 2nd QC-flag ('δ13Cqc', 1: quality controlled, 0: not quality controlled). The NAC13v1_expocode.csv-File contains the allocation of the cruise numbers used in NAC13v1 and their expocodes as well as the respective cruise numbers in GLODAPv2 and CARINA. For this analysis some cruises that belong together were condensed to one, e.g. the TTO-NA cruises.
The data set is available from CDIAC at http://cdiac.ess-dive.lbl.gov/oceans/ndp_096/NAC13v1.html Becker, M., N. Andersen, H. Erlenkeuser, T. Tanhua, M.P. Humphreys and A. Körtzinger. 2016. An Internally Consistent Dataset of δ13C-DIC Data in the North Atlantic Ocean. ORNL/CDIAC-162, NDP-096. http://cdiac.ess-dive.lbl.gov/oceans/ndp_096/NAC13v1.html Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, US Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. doi: 10.3334/CDIAC/OTG.NAC13v1
- CDIAC has updated the AGAGE network data held at CDIAC through March 2015.
- CDIAC published the GLobal Ocean Data Analysis Project version 2, GLODAPv2.
GLODAPv2 is available at http://cdiac.ess-dive.lbl.gov/oceans/GLODAPv2/.
This version is a major update of the original GLODAP (2004). Data from 724 cruises are included, covering 1972 to 2013. GLODAPv2 includes all data from the original GLODAP, data from CARINA and PACIFICA, and data from 168 new cruises. All data have been evaluated for measurement bias and adjusted appropriately, using a consistent method. The end result is the most comprehensive and rigorously quality controlled ocean interior data product for marine biogeochemistry studies.
GLODAPv2 consist of three elements:
i. -a data base with original cruise data, as submitted by individual data providers but updated to WOCE Exchange format,
ii. -a merged data product, with measurement biases removed for key biogeochemical variables, and
iii. -a mapped climatology of (ii) consisting of global 3D fields of the seawater distribution of CO2 chemistry and other parameters.
Analysis of GLODAPv2 parameters will allow for quantitative assessment of biogeochemical changes and feedbacks between climate change and the ocean system. GLODAPv2 is the result of a multi-year global team effort funded by EU-IP CARBOCHANGE, US NSF, US-NASA, US DOE, the SCOR-IOC International Ocean Carbon Coordination Project (IOCCP) and many other projects, programs and organisations. The procedures and results are extensively documented in:
Olsen, A., R. M. Key, S. van Heuven, S. K. Lauvset, A. Velo, X. Lin, C. Schirnick, A. Kozyr, T. Tanhua, M. Hoppema, S. Jutterström R. Steinfeldt, E. Jeansson, M. Ishii, F. F. Pérez & T. Suzuki: An internally consistent data product for the world ocean: the Global Ocean Data Analysis Project, version 2 (GLODAPv2), Earth System Science Data Discussions, doi:10.5194/essd-2015-42, in review, 2016
Lauvset, S. K, R. M. Key, A. Olsen, S. van Heuven, A. Velo, X. Lin, C. Schirnick, A. Kozyr, T. Tanhua, M. Hoppema, S. Jutterström R. Steinfeldt, E. Jeansson, M. Ishii, F. F. Pérez T. Suzuki & S. Watelet: A new global interior ocean mapped climatology: the 1°x1° GLODAP version 2, Earth System Science Data Discussions, doi:10.5194/essd-2015-43, in review, 2016
Key, R. M, A. Olsen, S. van Heuven, S. K. Lauvset, A. Velo, X. Lin, C. Schirnick, A. Kozyr, T. Tanhua, M. Hoppema, S. Jutterström R. Steinfeldt, E. Jeansson, M. Ishii, F. F. Pérez and T. Suzuki, 2015, Global Ocean Data Analysis Project, version 2 (GLODAPv2), ORNL/CDIAC-162, NDP-093, Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, US.
- CDIAC has published the LDEO Database V2014: Takahashi, T., S.C. Sutherland and A. Kozyr. 2015. Global Ocean Surface Water Partial Pressure of CO2 Database:
Measurements Performed During 1957-2014 (Version 2014). ORNL/CDIAC-161, NDP-088(V2014). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, doi: 10.3334/CDIAC/OTG.NDP088(V2014).
Approximately 9.1 million measurements of surface water pCO2 made over the global oceans during 1957-2014 have been processed to make a uniform data file in this Version 2014. Measurements made in open oceans as well as in coastal waters are included. The data assembled include only those measured using equilibrator-CO2 analyzer systems, and have been quality-controlled based upon the stability of the system performance, the reliability of calibrations for CO2 analysis and the internal consistency of data. This version includes the results of reanalysis for approximately 2.3 million pCO2 measurements which were made in the surface waters of the polar oceans aboard RVIB Palmer, RV Gould and USCGC Healy using an underway method developed and operated by the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (LDEO) group.
Although these data were reported to the CDIAC in a series of previous reports after the preliminary quality control, a reanalysis of the data has shown that these reported data call for corrections that account for the transit time of pumped sample water from the intake port near the bow to the pCO2 system located some distance away. The corrections applied to each data point are up to about ±8 μatm for the Palmer and Gould data and ±16 μatm for the Healy data, while the mean of the corrections for each cruise is less than ± 1 μatm. The method used and examples are described in detail in CDIAC report (Takahashi and Sutherland, 2015).
In order to allow re-examination of the data in the future, a number of measured parameters relevant to pCO2 in seawater are listed. The overall uncertainty for the pCO2 values listed is estimated to be ± 2.5 μatm on the average. The names and institutional affiliations of the contributors are listed in Table 1. The documentations for the previous versions (V1.0, V2007, V2008, V2009, V2010, 2011, V2012 and V2013) of our database are available at CDIAC "http://cdiac.ess-dive.lbl.gov/ftp/oceans/LDEO_Database/
- A new journal article published: Liu Z, Guan D, Wei W, Davis SJ, Ciais P, Bai J, Peng S, Zhang Q, Hubacek K, Marland G, Andres RJ, Crawford-Brown D, Lin J, Zhao H, Hong C, Boden TA, Feng K, Peters GP, Xi F, Liu J, Li Y, Zhao Y, Zeng N, He K (2015) Reduced carbon emission estimates from fossil fuel combustion and cement production in China. Nature 524:335-338. doi:10.1038/nature14677.
- Bob Andres attended the Our Common Future Under Climate Change Conference in Paris, France from 6-10 July 2015. He presented the poster “The changing face of global fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions” with co-author T. Boden of CDIAC.
- Bob Andres is an author on the paper, "Audit of the global carbon budget: estimate errors and their impact on uptake uncertainty" published in Biogeosciences (doi:10.5194/bg-12-2565-2015). In the paper the authors present a framework for assessing the temporal and spatial components of carbon budget estimate errors and their impact on uncertainty in net carbon uptake by the biosphere. Even when considering the major sources of error in the global carbon budget, the authors are 93% confident that terrestrial carbon uptake has increased and 97% confident that ocean carbon uptake has increased over the last 5 decades.
- Bob Andres attended the DOE Environmental System Science Principal Investigator Meeting in Potomac, MD from 28-29 April 2015. He presented the poster "Temporal, spatial, and uncertainty aspects of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel combustion: Highlights of the last year of TES funding" with co-author A. King of CDIAC. Bob also was a co-author on one other presentation at the meeting.
- CDIAC has updated atmospheric histories for CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, CCl4, SF6 and N2O from 1765 to 2015. The update incluudes a listing of mean northern and southern hemisphere tropospheric CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) and nitrous oxide (N2O) concentrations for the period 1765.5 to 2015.5. The concentrations are given for the mid-point of each year (e.g. 2013.5) and expressed as the mixing ratio (mole fraction) of the trace gas in dry air. Concentration values are reported in parts-per-trillion (ppt) for CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, CCl4 and SF6 and parts-per-billion (ppb) for N2O.
- CDIAC has updated its presentation of data through 2014 from the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies Surface Temperature Analysis (GISTEMP). This analysis, now led by Dr. Reto Ruedy (formerly led by Dr. James Hansen, since retired), finds that 2014 was the warmest year in the modern temperature record.
- Bob Andres attended the 5th NACP Principal Investigators Meeting in Washington, DC from 26-29 January 2015. He gave the talk "Two developments in uncertainty associated with the CDIAC fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions time series" with co-author Tom Boden of CDIAC. Bob also was a co-author on two other presentations at the meeting.
- Bob andres is a coauthor on the paper, "North America's net terrestrial CO2 exchange with the atmosphere 1990-2009", published in Biogeosciences. (Biogeosci. 12:399-414. doi:10.5194/bg-12-399-2015).
- Bob Andres attended the 2014 American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting in San Francisco, CA, from 15-19 December 2014. He showed the poster, "Gridded uncertainty maps of fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions: A new data product" with co-author Tom Boden of CDIAC. Bob also was a co-author on one other presentation at the meeting.
- Bob Andres is a co-author on the chapter, "Drivers, Trends and Mitigation" in the report, "Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change" issued by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).
- CDIAC has published "A high-frequency atmospheric and seawater pCO2 data set from 14 open ocean sites using a moored autonomous system" (NDP-0920) by Adrienne J. Sutton, Christopher L. Sabine, Jeremy T. Mathis of PMEL. In an effort to track ocean change and distinguish between natural and anthropogenic drivers, sustained ocean time-series measurements are becoming increasingly important. Advancements in the ocean carbon observation network over the last decade, such as the development and deployment of Moored Autonomous pCO2 (MAPCO2) systems, have dramatically improved our ability to characterize ocean climate, sea-air gas exchange, and biogeochemical processes around the globe. The MAPCO2 system provides high-resolution data that can measure inter-annual, seasonal, and sub-seasonal dynamics and constrain the impact of short-term biogeochemical variability on CO2 flux. Overall uncertainty of the MAPCO2 is less than 2 µatm for seawater partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) and less than 1 µatm for air pCO2. The MAPCO2 maintains this level of uncertainty for over 400 days of autonomous operation. MAPCO2 measurements are consistent with ship-board seawater pCO2 measurements and GLOBALVIEW-CO2 boundary layer atmospheric values. CDIAC provides this open ocean MAPCO2 data set including 14 surface buoys from 2004 through 2011 and a description of the methods and data quality control involved.
- The 2014 version of the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) data archive of dry column-averaged mixing ratios of CO2, CO, N2O, CH4, H2O, HDO and HF is now available. Data are available for Ascension Island (British Overseas Territory), Darwin (Australia), Edwards/Dryden (California, USA), Eureka (Nunavut, Canada), Garmisch (Germany), Indianapolis (Indiana, USA), Izaña (Tenerife, Spain), JPL2007 (California, USA), JPL2011 (California, USA), Karlsruhe (Germany), Lamont (Oklahoma, USA), Park Falls (Wisconsin, USA), Pasadena/Caltech (California, USA), Réunion Island (France), Saga (Japan), Sodankylä (Finland), and Wollongong (Australia). Other datasets will be uploaded shortly. The data are provided in netCDF format and include site-specific DOIs.
- The Global Carbon Budget 2014 data (Le Quéré et. al.) are now available on CDIAC. The 2014 analysis quantifies all major components of the global carbon budget, including the uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. It shows that CO2 emissions from burning fossil fuel are projected to rise by 2.5% in 2014, 65% above 1990 levels (reference year for the Kyoto Protocol). China, the USA, the European Union (EU), and India are the largest emitters, together accounting for 58% of emissions. China's CO2 emissions grew by 4.2% in 2013, the USA's by 2.9%, and India's by 5.1%. The EU has decreased its emissions by 1.8%, although it continues to export a third of its emissions to China and other producers through imported goods and services. China's CO2 emissions per person overtook emissions in the EU for the first time in 2013 and are now larger than the USA and EU combined. CO2 emissions are caused primarily by burning fossil fuels, as well as by cement production and deforestation. Deforestation accounts for 8% of CO2 emissions.
- CDIAC has published NDP-094: Climatological Distributions of pH, pCO2, Total CO2, Alkalinity, and CaCO3 Saturation in the Global Surface Ocean by Takahashi and co-workers. The distributions were calculated using a data set for pCO2, alkalinity and nutrient concentrations in surface waters (depths less than 50 m), which is built upon the GLODAP, CARINA and LDEO database. Calculated pH in global open-ocean surface waters ranges from 7.9 to 8.2 in the year 2005. Lower values are located in the upwelling regions in the tropical Pacific and in the Arabian and Bering Seas; and higher values are found in the subpolar and polar waters during the spring-summer months of intense photosynthetic production. Vast areas of subtropical oceans have seasonally varying pH values ranging from 8.05 during warmer months to 8.15 during colder months.
- CDIAC has published An observation-based global monthly gridded sea surface pCO2 product from 1998 through 2011 and its monthly climatology. The observation-based pCO2 fields were created using a 2-step neural network technique. First the global ocean is divided into 16 biogeochemical provinces using a self organizing map. Then the non-linear relationship between variables known to drive the surface ocean carbon system and gridded observations from the SOCATv2 dataset is reconstructed. The final product is then produced by projecting surface temperature, chlorophyll, mixed layer depth, and atmospheric CO2 onto oceanic pCO2. This results in monthly pCO2 fields at 1°x1° resolution covering the entire globe with the exception of the Arctic Ocean and few marginal seas. More details can be found in Landschützer et al. 2013 and Landschützer et al. 2014.
- Bob Andres attended the 13th Quadrennial iCACGP Symposium and 13th IGAC Science Conference in Natal, Brazil, from 22-26 September 2014. He showed a poster entitled "New uncertainty analysis of the CDIAC estimates of fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions".
- The Web Accessible Visualization and Extraction System (WAVES) has been updated with Global Surface pCO2 (LDEO) Database V2013 that was published last month. Approximately 9.0 million measurements of surface water pCO2 made over the global oceans during 1957-2013 have been processed to make a uniform data file in this Version 2013. Measurements made in open oceans as well as in coastal waters are included. The data assembled include only those measured using equilibrator-CO2 analyzer systems, and have been quality-controlled based upon the stability of the system performance, the reliability of calibrations for CO2 analysis and the internal consistency of data.
- CDIAC has published data on regional carbon stocks, assumed NPP, and net land-use change emissions by ecosystem which was estimated using historical land-use data and a simple carbon model. The work is described by S. J. Smith and A. Rothwell in a paper, entitled, "Carbon density and anthropogenic land-use influences on net land-use change emissions" (Biogeosciences, 10, 6323-6337, doi:10.5194/bg-10-6323-2013, 2013.). The model results show a net land-use change in emissions from 1700–2000 of 250 GtC and from 1850–2000 of 210 GtC. These values are somewhat higher than many estimates in the literature, but comparable to recent estimates that use a similar land-use change data set that also includes the impact of wood harvesting on carbon stocks.
- Bob Andres gave an invited talk at Appalachian State University, Boone, NC, on 28 Jul 2014, entitled "Some thoughts on uncertainty in fossil fuel emission estimates, flux and distributions".
- Bob Andres and Tom Boden of CDIAC with David Higdon of Los Alamos National Laboratory published a paper entitled "A new evaluation of the uncertainty associated with CDIAC estimates of fossil fuel carbon dioxide emission" (Tellus B 2014, 66, 23616, http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/tellusb.v66.23616). In the paper they report the results of three uncertainty assessments associated with the global total of carbon dioxide emitted from fossil fuel use and cement production. The three assessments collectively give a range of uncertainty that spans from 1.0 to 13% (2 σ). Greatly simplifying the assessments give a global FFCO2 uncertainty value of 8.4% (2 σ) as a reasonable value.
- Bob Andres was a coauthor on the paper, "Current systematic carbon-cycle observations and the need for implementing a policy-relevant carbon observing system" (Biogeosci. 11:3547-3602. doi:10.5194/bg-11-3547-2014). The paper discusses the need for a globally integrated carbon observation and analysis system to improve the fundamental understanding of the global carbon cycle, to improve our ability to project future changes, and to verify the effectiveness of policies aiming to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase carbon sequestration.