NOTICE (March 2018): This website provides access to the CDIAC archive data temporarily. It will be gradually transitioned into data packages in the new ESS-DIVE archive. This site will continue to operate in parallel during and after the transition, and will be retired at a future date. If you have any questions regarding the data or the transition, please contact

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Direct Effects of Atmospheric CO2 Enrichment on Plants and Ecosystems: An Updated Bibliographic Data Base


Edited by Boyd R. Strain and Jennifer D. Cure
Department of Botany, Duke University

Update note: An update to this bibliography, containing over 2700 references published between 1990 and 1999, is available as Bibliography on CO2 Effects on Vegetation and Ecosystems: 1990-1999 Literature (ORNL/CDIAC-129).

This publication provides bibliographic citations and abstracts on recent literature concerning the direct effects of elevated atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) on plants and ecosystems. The updated bibliography provides complete bibliographic citations, abstracts, keywords, and common and scientific plant names for approximately 800 references published between 1980 and 1994 (half the cited references were published in 1990 or later). A copy of the printed report may be obtained from CDIAC at no charge while supplies last.

The data base is available as bibliographic files in the following formats (select the desired format to access the appropriate bibliographic files, then click the right mouse button and save each file in the specified directory on your system; for more complete instructions see Accessing CDIAC's Anonymous FTP Area.):

  • PapyrusTM (a registered trademark of Research Software Design, 2718 SW Kelly St., Suite 181, Portland, OR 97201, U.S.A.)
  • Pro-Cite® (a registered trademark of Research Information Systems, Camino Corporate Center, 2355 Camino Vida Roble, Carlsbad, CA 92009, U.S.A.)
  • WordPerfect® (a registered trademark of the Corel Corporation, 1600 Carling Ave., Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1Z 8R7) 5.1

In addition, limited versions of PapyrusTM and Pro-Cite® software are available - The PapyrusTM Retriever may be downloaded from Research Software Design's web site (, and the Pro-Cite® Read-Only Program may be obtained from CDIAC while supplies last.

You may also be interested in the home page for the Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) studies, in which vegetation from a wide variety of regions is exposed to elevated levels of carbon dioxide without being confined in chambers - the most sophisticated and realistic of such studies to date.