FY 1998 in Review
New Numeric Data Packages (NDPs)
During fiscal year (FY) 1998, the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) published six numeric data packages (NDPs) under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The data and descriptive files are available via the Internet from CDIAC's Web site (http://cdiac.ess-dive.lbl.gov) and from CDIAC's anonymous file transfer protocol (FTP) area (cdiac.ornl.gov). Printed reports and data on digital media are available from CDIAC on request.
- A Coastal Hazards Data Base for the U.S. West Coast (ORNL/CDIAC-81, NDP-043C), by Vivien Gornitz [National Aeronautics Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS)] and prepared by Tammy Beaty and Richard Daniels (CDIAC). NDP-043C completes the three-part series (NDP-043A covers the U.S. East Coast and NDP-043B the U.S. Gulf Coast). It describes the contents of a digital database that can be used to identify coastlines along the U.S. West Coast that are at risk to sea-level rise. This database integrates point, line, and polygon data for the U.S. West Coast into 0.25-degree grid cells and into 1:2,000,000 digitized line segments that can be used by raster or vector geographic information systems (GIS) as well as by non-GIS databases. Each coastal grid cell and line segment contains data variables from the following seven data sets: elevation, geology, geomorphology, sea-level trends, shoreline displacement (erosion/accretion), tidal ranges, and wave heights. These variables may be used to calculate a Coastal Vulnerability Index (CVI); algorithms used to calculate several CVIs are listed within the text.
- Carbon-14 Measurements in Surface Water CO2 from the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans, 1965-1994 (ORNL/CDIAC-104, NDP-057A), by Reidar Nydal (Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim) and prepared by Antoinette Brenkert and Tom Boden (CDIAC). These data support the study of the dynamics of the global carbon cycle through quantification of the isotopic exchange between the atmosphere and oceans. NDP-057A accompanies the previously published NDP-057 which included atmospheric isotope data.
- Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from Fossil-Fuel Burning,
Hydraulic Cement Production, and Gas Flaring for 1995 on a One Degree
Grid Cell Basis (NDP-058A), produced by Antoinette Brenkert (CDIAC), complements NDP-058, which includes estimates for 1950, 1960, 1970,
1980, and 1990. The 1995 national emission estimates (taken from NDP-030, http://cdiac.ess-dive.lbl.gov/ndps/ndp030.html) were distributed within
each country according to the Li population database (DB1016,
- Effects of CO2 and Nitrogen Fertilization on Growth and Nutrient Content of Juvenile Ponderosa Pine (ORNL/CDIAC-107, NDP-061A), by Dale Johnson [Desert Research Institute (DRI) and the University of Nevada-Reno (UNR)], Timothy Ball (DRI), and Roger Walker (UNR) and prepared by Robert Cushman (CDIAC). NDP-061A presents measured values of plant diameter and height, biomass, and nutrient concentrations from a study of the effects of carbon dioxide and nitrogen fertilization conducted in open-top chambers. This database can help quantify the response of vegetation to rising atmospheric concentrations of carbon
dioxide caused by fossil-fuel combustion and land use change.
- Surface Water and Atmospheric Underway Carbon Data Obtained
During the World Ocean Circulation Experiment Indian Ocean Survey Cruises (R/V Knorr, December 1994-January 1996) (ORNL/CDIAC-103, NDP-064), by Christopher Sabine and Robert Key (Princeton University) and prepared by Alexander Kozyr and Linda Allison (CDIAC). NDP-064 includes data on mole fraction of carbon dioxide, sea surface salinity, and sea surface temperature measured during the nine 1994-1996 Indian Ocean cruises of the R/V Knorr. This database contributes to our understanding of the role of the oceans in the global carbon cycle. The data contributors are part of the
Joint Global Ocean Flux Study supported by the U.S. Department of Energy to make carbon-related measurements on the World Ocean Circulation Experiment global survey cruises.
- Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained in the South Pacific Ocean (WOCE Sections P16A/P17A, P17E/P19S, and P19C, RV Knorr, October 1992-April 1993 (ORNL/CDIAC-109, NDP-065), by Stephany Rubin, John Goddard, David Chipman, Taro Takahashi, and Stewart Sutherland [Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (LDGO) of Columbia University] and Joseph Reid, James Swift, and Lynne Talley [Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) of the University of California, San Diego] and prepared by Alexander Kozyr (CDIAC). NDP-065 includes data on total and partial pressure of carbon dioxide, the chlorofluorocarbons CFC-11 and CFC-12, and nutrient, chemical, and physical variables measured at 422 stations during three South Pacific Ocean cruises of the R/V Knorr (between Tahiti, Chile, and Panama). At 114 stations, complete vertical profiles were obtained from the surface to the ocean floor. This database contributes to our understanding of the role of the oceans in the global carbon cycle. The investigators were funded by the U.S. Department of Energy to make carbon-related measurements on the World Ocean Circulation Experiment global survey cruises.
New Databases (DBs)
During FY 1998, CDIAC published one database. The data and descriptive files are available via CDIAC's Web site (http://cdiac.ess-dive.lbl.gov) and from CDIAC's anonymous FTP area (cdiac.ornl.gov), as well as on a variety of magnetic media.
The Environmental Measurements Laboratory's Stratospheric Radionuclide (RANDAB) and Trace Gas (TRACDAB) Databases (DB-1019), contributed by Robert Leifer and Nita Chan [DOE Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML)] and prepared by Tom Boden (CDIAC). RANDAB represents the world's largest collection of stratospheric and upper tropospheric tritium, radon, and 14CO2 data, extending from 1957 to 1983. The tritium data were provided by Allen Mason of Los Alamos National Laboratory and H. G. Östlund of the University of Miami. TRACDAB contains more than 1000 stratospheric trace gas (CCl3F, CCl2F2, CCl4, CH3CCl3, SF6, N2O, CO2, CH4, and COS) measurements for the period 1974 to 1983, analyzed at EML, Washington State University, and the Oregon Graduate Institute for Science and Technology. They are useful for developing and verifying large-scale transport and climate models, understanding tropospheric and stratospheric transport processes, and modeling the future atmospheric impact of a projected new fleet of stratospheric flying aircraft.
Updated NDPs and DBs
- Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations--Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii, 1958-1997 (revised August 1998) (NDP-001), by Charles Keeling and Timothy Whorf (SIO) and updated by Tom Boden (CDIAC). It contains the monthly and annual atmospheric CO2 record, including data from 1958 through 1997.
These data represent the longest continuous record of atmospheric CO2 concentrations in the world. This precise data series is a reliable indicator of the regional trend in the concentration of atmospheric CO2 in the middle layers of the troposphere and is critical to CO2-related research.
- Global, Regional, and National CO2 Emission Estimates from Fossil Fuel Burning, Cement
Production, and Gas Flaring: 1751-1996 (NDP-030), by Gregg Marland (CDIAC), Bob Andres (University of Alaska-Fairbanks), Tom Boden (CDIAC), Cathy Johnston (The University of Tennessee-Knoxville), and Antoinette Brenkert (CDIAC) and prepared by Gregg Marland and Tom Boden (CDIAC). These data quantify CO2 emissions from fossil fuel burning, cement production, and gas flaring through 1996, some as far back as 1751. These estimates, derived primarily from energy statistics published by the United Nations (UN), were calculated using the methods of Marland and Rotty (1984).
Cement production estimates from the U.S. Department of the Interior's Bureau of Mines were used to estimate CO2 emitted during cement production. Emissions from gas flaring were derived primarily from
UN data but were supplemented with data from the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration, Rotty (1974), and a few national estimates provided by Gregg Marland.
- Two Long-Term Instrumental Climatic Data Bases of the People's Republic of China (1997) (NDP-039), by Tao Shiyan, Fu Congbin, Zeng Zhaomei, and Zhang Qingyun (Institute of Atmospheric Physics,
Beijing) and prepared by Dale Kaiser (CDIAC). NDP-039 contains monthly mean temperature and precipitation data from 205 stations, plus additional meteorological variables from a second network of 65 stations. The data extend through 1993; sixteen stations from these data sets have records beginning
before 1900. These databases, from a large Northern Hemisphere land mass (i.e., the People's Republic of China), are useful in tracking climate trends, validating climate models, and analyzing the relationship between such climatic factors as cloudiness and temperature.
- Six- and Three-hourly Meteorological Observations from 223 U.S.S.R. Stations (ORNL/CDIAC-108, NDP-048), by Vyacheslav N. Razuvaev, E. G. Apasova, and R. A. Martuganov [All-Russian Research Institute of Hydrometeorological Information-World Data Centre (RIHMI-WDC) Obninsk, Russia] and prepared by Dale Kaiser (CDIAC). The database now includes data through 1990 for 24 meteorological variables including temperature, past and present weather type, precipitation amount, cloud amount and type, sea level pressure, relative humidity, and wind direction and speed. The database represents a wealth of meteorological information for a large and climatologically important portion of the Earth's land area and should prove extremely useful for a wide variety of regional climate change studies.
- The ALE/GAGE/AGAGE Monitoring Network (DB1001), which provides continuous high-frequency measurements of eight important trace gases: methane (CH4); nitrous oxide (N2O); the chlorofluorocarbons CFCl3, CF2Cl2, and CF2ClCFCl2; methyl chloroform (CH3CCl3); chloroform
(CHCl3); and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). This database has been one of CDIAC's "Top Ten" most-requested products, and it supports analyses and monitoring related to both the Kyoto Protocol (to control global warming caused by elevated atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases) and the Montreal Protocol (to protect the Earth's ozone layer). The data were contributed by R. Prinn, D. Cunnold, P.
Fraser, R. Weiss, P. Simmonds, F. Alyea, L. P. Steele, and D. Hartley; they were prepared for online distribution by CDIAC's Tom Boden. The program began in 1978, and this update provided data through September 1997 for all five existing sites: Cape Grim, Tasmania; Point Matatula, American Samoa; Ragged Point, Barbados; Mace Head, Ireland; and Trinidad Head, California (stations also previously existed at Cape Meares, Oregon, and Adrigole, Ireland).
- In situ Carbon 13 and Oxygen 18 Ratios of Atmospheric CO2 from Cape Grim, Tasmania, Australia: 1982-1993 (DB1014), contributed by Roger Francey and Colin Allison (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Australia) and prepared for online distribution by CDIAC's Tom Boden. Since 1982, a continuous program of sampling atmospheric CO2 to determine stable isotope ratios has been maintained at the Australian Baseline Air Pollution Station, Cape Grim, Tasmania (40° 40' 56" S, 144° 41' 18" E). The samples, a preponderance of which are collected in conditions of strong wind from the marine boundary layer of the Southern Ocean, and the determination of all isotope ratios relative to a common high-purity CO2 reference gas with isotopic carbon close to atmospheric values provide a unique combination of factors with respect to obtaining a globally representative signal from a surface site. The carbon-isotope data help partition the uptake of fossil fuel emissions between ocean and terrestrial reservoirs, whereas the oxygen-isotope data predominantly reflect the terrestrial hydrological cycle.
- Catalog of Databases and Reports (ORNL/CDIAC-34), compiled by Marvel Burtis (CDIAC). A new streamlined version provides information about the many reports and materials made available by CDIAC. The catalog indicates the databases and reports that are available in enhanced format (e.g., with hyperlinks and graphics) from CDIAC's Web site.
- CDIAC Communications, Number 24, Winter 1998, co-edited by Sonja Jones and Karen Gibson (CDIAC). This issue features a lead story on CDIAC's CO2 emissions estimates through 1995, a special story on the role played by CDIAC in support of the Kyoto meeting on international greenhouse-gas emissions reductions, a discussion of the NARSTO Quality Systems Science Center now operated by CDIAC, descriptions of new databases available from CDIAC, and summaries of new global-change
publications that may be of interest.
Fiscal Year 1997 Annual Report (ORNL/CDIAC-106), by Bob Cushman, Tom Boden, Sonja Jones, Dale Kaiser, and Tommy Nelson (with input from the other CDIAC staff) and compiled by Marvel Burtis
(CDIAC). The report documents highlights from the fiscal year (new data products and other publications); provides statistics, such as the number of requests for global-change data and information from CDIAC, and citations in the published literature of data obtained from CDIAC; alerts users to new data products that CDIAC hoped to release in Fiscal Year 1998; lists awards received by CDIAC and
publications and presentations of its staff; and lists the many organizations with which CDIAC has collaborated to produce the data and information products it released in FY 1997.
- Program Developed for CO2 System Calculations (ORNL/CDIAC-105), by Ernie Lewis and Doug
Wallace (Brookhaven National Laboratory) and prepared by Linda Allison (CDIAC). The program documented in this report calculates any two of the four carbonate system parameters in seawater, given measurements of the other two; the user may select from four different pH scales and several sets of dissociation constants. As increasingly accurate ocean carbon measurements are taken, in the attempt to
quantify the role of the oceans in regulating atmospheric concentrations of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide, these calculation issues grow in importance.
Additions and Updates to Online Publications
- New to Trends Online
Global and Hemispheric Temperature Anomalies--Land and Marine Instrumental Records by Philip D. Jones, Tim J. Osborn, and Keith R. Briffa (University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK) and David E. Parker (Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, Bracknell, UK) and prepared for online publication by Dale Kaiser (CDIAC). The 1856-1997 time series updates the data last presented in CDIAC's printed Trends '93 report. The land portion of this new database is composed of surface air temperature data (land-surface meteorological data and fixed-position weather ship data) that have been
corrected for nonclimatic errors, such as station shifts and/or instrument changes. The marine data consist of sea surface temperatures that incorporate in situ measurements from ships and buoys. These data have been used extensively by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The time series indicate that the five warmest years of the global record have all occurred since 1990 and that 1997 was the warmest. The average surface air temperature of the globe has warmed approximately 0.5 degrees Celsius since the middle of the nineteenth century.
Historical CO2 Records from the Law Dome DE08, DE08-2, and DSS Ice Cores (Antarctica), contributed by D. M. Etheridge, L. Paul Steele, R. L. Langenfelds, and Roger J. Francey (Division of Atmospheric Research, CSIRO, Aspendale, Victoria, Australia), J. -M. Barnola (Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Géophysique de l'Environnement, Saint Martin d'Hères-Cedex, France), and Vin I. Morgan (Antarctic CRC and Australian Antarctic Division, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia) and prepared by Mónica Martínez (summer student from the University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras) and Tom Boden (CDIAC). These data provide atmospheric CO2 mixing ratios from 1006 to 1978 A.D. Because of the high rate of snow accumulation at Law Dome, the air enclosed in the three ice cores has unparalleled age resolution and extends into recent decades. Preindustrial CO2 mixing ratios were in the range 275 to 284 ppm, with the lower levels during 1550-1800 A.D., probably as a result of a colder global climate. The Law Dome ice core CO2 records show major growth in atmospheric CO2 levels over the industrial period, except during 1935-1945 A.D. when levels stabilized or decreased slightly. Such data have a number of important applications, such as studying the relationship between greenhouse gases and climate change and calibrating models of the global carbon cycle.
Annual Estimates of Global Anthropogenic Methane: 1860-1994, contributed by David Stern (Centre for Resource and Environmental Studies, Australian National University, Canberra) and Robert
Kaufmann (Center for Energy and Environmental Studies, Boston University) and prepared for online publication by Bob Cushman (CDIAC). Methane is thought to rank second only to carbon dioxide in terms of importance as a greenhouse gas, and a knowledge of anthropogenic emissions is important for studies of the biogeochemical cycling of methane and for consideration of strategies for reducing emissions.
The fossil-fuel CO2 emissions section of Trends Online, which included global, regional, and national CO2 emission estimates for 1751-1995 (Marland et al.), was redesigned and made available online during FY 1997.
- Updates to Trends Online
Data records of atmospheric carbon dioxide measurements from Mt. Cimone, Italy, (http://cdiac.ess-dive.lbl.gov/trends/co2/mtcim.html) and Lampedusa Island
(http://cdiac.ess-dive.lbl.gov/trends/co2/lampis.html) were updated by Tom Boden (CDIAC). The Mt. Cimone data, contributed by Tiziano Colombo and Riccardo Santaguida (Italian Meteorological Service, Sestola, Italy), began in 1979 and now extend through 1996. The atmospheric CO2 record from Mt. Cimone represents the longest continuous record available for the Mediterranean area. From 1980 to 1996, the annual mean atmospheric CO2 concentration at Mt. Cimone rose from 337.31 parts per million by volume (ppmv) to 363 ppmv. The Lampedusa Station data, contributed by Luigi Ciattaglia and P. Chamard (CNR/IFA, Rome), now extend from 1992 through July 1997.
Data records of carbon 14 in atmospheric carbon dioxide from Schauinsland, Germany, (http://cdiac.ess-dive.lbl.gov/trends/co2/cent-scha.html) were updated by Tom Boden (CDIAC). The Schauinsland data, contributed by Ingeborg Levin, Bernd Kromer, and Rolf Graul (Institut für Umweltphysik, University of Heidelberg, Germany), begin in 1976 and extend now through 1996. On the
basis of close agreement between the data from Schauinsland and Vermunt, the two records are considered indicative of the 14C level of tropospheric CO2 above central Europe. The Schauinsland record shows a seasonal pattern, with minimum values occurring during the winter half year, a consequence of bomb 14C still equilibrating with the world oceans and the biosphere, as well as an ongoing input of 14C-free fossil fuel CO2 into the atmosphere.
- Selected Translated Abstracts of Russian-Language Climate-Change Publications, produced in collaboration with the All-Russian Research Institute of Hydrometeorological Information-World Data
Center (Obninsk, Russia) is now online as a four-volume series that includes hundreds of abstracts on the topics of the surface energy budget, clouds, aerosols, and general circulation models. The series, produced under the auspices of a 1972 U.S.-U.S.S.R. agreement on protection of the environment, opens up to western researchers a wealth of climate-change literature that was previously available only in Russian.
- The Quality Systems Science Center, operated by CDIAC on behalf of the North American Research Strategy for Tropospheric Ozone (NARSTO) has published online three important documents to assist ozone researchers in ensuring the quality of their research results. These publications are available online as PDF files, and may be read with the free Adobe Acrobat Reader.
NARSTO Quality Systems Management Plan (ORNL/CDIAC-110), by Ronald Patterson (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) and Les Hook, Meng-Dawn Cheng, and Thomas Boden (CDIAC) identifies the NARSTO program quality assurance and data management requirements and guidelines for
ensuring NARSTO product credibility, reliability, accessability, and quality--the keys to NARSTO success.
The NARSTO Quality Planning Handbook (ORNL/CDIAC-111), by Les Hook, Meng-Dawn Cheng, and Thomas Boden (CDIAC) offers guidance concerning the preparation of project quality system planning documentation and research, modeling, and assessment reports.
The NARSTO Data Management Handbook (ORNL/CDIAC-112), by Thomas Boden, Les Hook, and Meng-Dawn Cheng (CDIAC) offers guidance concerning the management of data, products, and records to help ensure the long-term utility of NARSTO products.
- Tom Boden and Sonja Jones (CDIAC) put online a concise table of important information about carbon dioxide and eleven other greenhouse gases, including data on pre-industrial (1860) concentration, present tropospheric concentration, global warming potential, and atmospheric lifetime. All data are referenced
to their sources. This information should prove a convenient reference for global change studies and for analyses related to the Kyoto and Montreal protocols.
New Focus Areas
- CNN Interactive cited the Project YOTO Drifters Web site, hosted by CDIAC and developed by Forrest Hoffman, in its online article "Ocean drifters bring science to the classroom" (http://www.cnn.com/TECH/science/9807/23/drifters.yoto/) posted on 23 July 1998. This Web site (http://drifters.doe.gov/) was developed as DOE's contribution to the multiagency National Oceanographic Partnership Program project to deploy ocean drifters as part of the International Year of the Ocean (YOTO) and to engage the education community in study of the oceans by making real-time
data on ocean currents and temperatures readily available, along with related educational resource materials.
- CDIAC is responsible for developing and maintaining a web-based data management system for AmeriFlux, a research program to quantify fluxes of carbon between the terrestrial biosphere and the lower atmosphere at selected sites in Brazil, Canada, Costa Rica, and the United States.
FY 1998 marked the first year AmeriFlux data were available and distributed from CDIAC. AmeriFlux scientists are now routinely submitting CO2 and radiation flux, meteorological, and ecological data to CDIAC. By the end of FY 1998, data were available from three sites considered part of the AmeriFlux network, which now includes roughly 40 sites in the Americas. The three sites for which data are available are Harvard Forest (Massachusetts), Howland Forest (Maine), and Walker Branch Watershed (Tennessee). Data from seven other AmeriFlux sites were submitted to CDIAC in FY 1998 and are currently being processed.
Work priorities for FY 1998 focused on interactions with AmeriFlux scientists, documentation issues aimed at improving future AmeriFlux site data integration and intercomparison efforts, computer program development to assist AmeriFlux data processing and QA/QC efforts, and development of the AmeriFlux Web site. Development and maintenance of the AmeriFlux Web site continued during FY 1998 and the site received over 58,000 "hits" from more than 1,500 users worldwide.
- The U.S. Information Agency had a link to CDIAC's web site in their online story President Clinton on Climate Change: Radio address, July 25, 1998. The USIA page also had a link to a World Wildlife Fund page with country-by-country CO2 emissions, the data for which came from CDIAC.
- CDIAC developed a special web page in honor of Charles David Keeling's historic 40-year record of atmospheric carbon dioxide measurements at Mauna Loa, Hawaii. Keeling's work at Mauna Loa provided the first evidence of rising concentrations of this most important greenhouse gas. This web page, developed by Sonja Jones (CDIAC), provides links to Vice President Al Gore's presentation of a special achievement award to Keeling and to the data.
- CDIAC has added a Global Climate Change Links Page to its Web site. This page, developed by Dale Kaiser (CDIAC), provides links to web pages that responsibly present information and discussion pertinent to the science behind the global climate change debate. CDIAC hopes it will be especially helpful for those who may be just beginning their research into these issues.
- Dale Kaiser contributed sections on Current Climate, Climate Trends, and Climate Scenarios to the North America chapter of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's (IPCC's) 1998 special report, The Regional Impacts of Climate Change. Because of a recent publication on cloud amount trends over China, he has been invited to contribute his findings to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's upcoming Third Assessment Report, Climate Change 2000, The Science of Climate Change. This type of work is facilitated by DOE's bilateral research agreement and activities with the People's Republic of China's China Meteorological Administration, in which Dale is an active participant. FY 1999 will likely also see further research at CDIAC into cloudiness trends over the former Soviet Union, which, when published later in FY 1999 or in early FY 2000, may also be included in the aforementioned IPCC report. The former Soviet Union climate research stems from data-sharing activities under the U.S.-Russia Agreement on Cooperation in the Field of Protection of the Environment and Natural Resources, Working Group VII,
The Influence of Environmental Changes on Climate.